Technical Papers and Abstracts

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Short form Catalog
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Canadian-building digest
The standard method of evaluating the quality of concrete in buildings or structures is to test specimens case simultaneously for compressive, flexural and tensile strengths. The main disadvantages are that results are not obtained immediately; that concrete in specimens may differ from that in the actual structure as a result of different curing and compaction conditions; and that strength properties of a concrete specimen depend on its size and shape, and off course on the testing methodology. Although there can be no direct measurement of the strength properties of structural concrete for the simple reason that strength determination involves destructive stresses, several non-destructive methods of assessment have been developed. These depend on the fact that certain physical properties of concrete can be related to strength and can be measured by non-destructive methods. Such properties include hardness, resistance to penetration by projectiles, rebound capacity and ability to transmit ultrasonic pulses. These non-destructive methods may be categorized as penetration tests, rebound tests, pullout techniques, dynamic tests, maturity concept. It is the purpose of this Digest to describe these methods briefly, outlining their advantages and disadvantages.
Compressive strength with velocity
A correlation between the compressive strength of concrete and the velocity of sound propagation has been established. The relationship is presently an empirical one with all test data having to be related to pre-established standards. The method is, however, applicable to both field and laboratory concrete when sufficient knowledge concerning the mix design is available.
Impact of metric conversion
The reinforcing-steel industry announced plans to fully convert to soft metric rebar production. How will the change affect nonmetric reinforced-concrete construction projects? Federally funded construction projects now required to be designed in metric units and built with metric materials. The reinforcing-steel industry is committed to supporting metrication and, earlier this year, a number of rebar mills announced that they are beginning to phase in the production of soft metric bars. During this transition period, the mills will reduce and eventually eliminate their output of inch-pound bars. But what impact will the switch to soft metric rebar have on private-sector construction products that don’t have to be built using metric units?
Modern Steel Reinforcement Bar
This method uses two coils. The first coil is connected to a power supply which feeds it a low frequency i.e. (102Hz) AC signals. The second coil feeds directly into an amplifier.
When a rebar is introduced to the coils’ electromagnetic field, a higher voltage is induced in the other coil. The amount of voltage change is direct function of the magnetic characteristics, location and size of the metallic object. By combining two sensing coils in a balanced configuration. The precise position of the object can be achieved.
Testing of Concrete and Morter
This paper presents the results obtained from tests conducted with a new pin penetration nondestructive apparatus to determine the compressive strength of hardened concrete and mortar at early age. The concrete tests were carried out on 3 x 6 in. (75 x 150 mm) cylinders and on 18 x 24 x 4 in. (460 x 610 x 100 mm) slab while the mortar tests were performed on an equal size slab and on 2 in. (50 mm) cubes. The concrete mixes were made with Type I cement, lime and sand. It was found that the pin penetration tester can be used successfully to determine the compressive strength of concrete and mortar at early age from 10 hours up to 28 days.
Testing of Floor Slabs
The most common test result at present in use for the control of concrete quality in building and civil engineering projects is the cube crushing strength, and the debate on the correlation possible between the recorded value of such a standard test on a small sample and the true value of the concrete in the corresponding structure is endless and often acrimonious. The industry recognize the need for a quick, simple and accurate assessment of the quality of concrete members at the earliest possible opportunity after casting, and the relationship of non-destructive testing to specifications has been previously discussed.
Building Materials Article - Permeability
More than one thousand years after the Romans erected concrete structures, scientists are still trying to define and measure permeability, the key to good durability. In an Immediate Past Chairman’s address presented before the Road and Building Materials Group (not the construction Materials Group) John Figg describes the theoretical basis of permeability studies, the equipment and methodologies involved, and reviews the results of recent work in the field.
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